UJAS Vol 13, No. 2, 2012

Vol 13, No. 2, 2012

Aflatoxins are toxic, and highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They pose a serious health hazard to humans and animals that consume contaminated grain. Recently, the National Maize Breeding Program at National Crop Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) incorporated breeding for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in its initiative to improve maize grain quality in Uganda.

The breeding strategy had three major components: (i) identifying locally adapted, elite germplasm with resistance to A. flavus and reduced aflatoxin accumulation, (ii) improving locally adapted, elite germplasm for host resistance, and (iii) formation of new populations for pedigree breeding.

To identify sources of resistance, we first compared effectiveness of media plating and media free techniques for assessment of kernel infection rate (KIR) on various germplasm. We generated 144 three-way test crosses and screened them together with their parental inbred lines and 4 single cross testers for host resistance to A. flavus and reduced aflatoxin accumulation. Using line by tester analysis, we identified 5 resistant inbred lines and 7 hybrids. We used the resistant inbred lines to make crosses with new sources of resistance from International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in diallel design.

To strengthen this work, we conducted a survey to assess farmers' knowledge on A. flavus and aflatoxins and their management practices. Results obtained provided us with a foundation for development and deployment of new germplasm with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation for improved grain quality for both domestic consumption and export.

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Combining ability and heritability for host resistance to Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin accumulation in tropical mid-altitude maize

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G. Asea , K.B. Kwemoi , M. Ebellu , S. Okanya , M. Walusimbi and A. Nakayima

Male fertility in Musa: Pollen quality in diploid banana hybrids

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R.T. Ssali , M. Pillay , P. Rubaihayo and W.K. Tushemereirwe

The past, present and projected scenarios in the Lake Albert and Albert Nile fisheries: Implications for sustainable management

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D. Mbabazi , A. Taabu-Munyaho , L.I. Muhoozi (RIP) , H. Nakiyende , S. Bassa , E. Muhumuza , R. Amiina and J.S. Balirwa

Reduction of the "ngege", Oreochromis esculentus (Teleostei:Cichlidae) populations, and resultant population genetic status in the Lake Victoria Region

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W. Waiswa Mwanja , P.A. Fuerst and L. Kaufman

Influence of diets containing raw or heat processed cowpea on the performance and gut health of broiler chickens

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F. Anjos , M. Vazquez-Anon , F. Yan , J. Dibner and E. Dierenfeld

Effect of method of storing cattle faeces on the physical and chemical characteristics of the resultant composted cattle manure

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S. Katuromunda , E.N. Sabiiti and A. Mateete Bekunda

Knowledge and perceptions of smallholder dairy farmers of cattle disease burdens in selected agro-ecological zones of Uganda

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H. Kirunda 1 , F. Kabi , N. Muwereza , T. Kabuuka , J.W. Magona and G. Lukwago

Combined effect of grain solarisation and oiling on the development of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch

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H. Muyinza , G. Musittala , C.J. Mutyaba and A.A. Agona

Physical quality and safety assessment of selected varieties of local paddy and milled rice processed by cottage rice mills in Uganda

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A. Candia and M. Masette

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